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Patterns Async + Event-Driven

Running functions in parallel

Fan-out work to multiple functions using a single event


Event-driven systems allow you to have multiple subscribers for a single event stream. This lets you fan-out an event to multiple functions in parallel. Fan-out is useful for decoupling distinct logic into independently run jobs.

This is different to how most queueing systems work. In most queueing systems like SQS or Celery, a specific job in a queue runs a single function. This may cause developers to bundle unrelated logic into a a single background job which isn't ideal as a failure in one part of your job may cause unrelated code to also fail.

If you want to run 5 background jobs after a user signs up, using an event-driven system like Inngest you'll only have to send a single event. In typical queueing systems you'll have to enqueue each 5 different messages individually.

How to implement this pattern

Inngest allows you to create as many functions as you need which subscribe to the same event:

import { createFunction } from "inngest";
const funcA = createFunction("A", "user/signup", ({ event }) => { /* Your logic runs on signup here */ });
const funcB = createFunction("B", "user/signup", ({ event }) => { /* And this function runs in parallel on signup */ });
const funcC = createFunction("C", "user/signup", ({ event }) => { /* This function _also_ runs at the same time */ });

In this example, we define three functions which run automatically in parallel whenever the user/signup event is received. Each of these run independently, and can be defined in different projects - without worrying about managing queues or subscribers.

Alternative event-driven systems

You can create an event-driven system using things like NATS, Redis, or Kafka - all are reliable event streaming infrastructure components.

Using this infrastructure, you'll need to configure your topics via code (or terraform), then configure stateful subscribers which listen to your topics using an always-alive service. Your subscribers should handle parallelism themselves, ensuring that you ack/nack events as they're processed. If a single subscription fails, you'll need to manage retries, dead-letter queues, and watermarks for a topic yourself. This is a common approach, though it's often a lot of work to build, set up, and maintain.

Additional resources

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